Medial Ankle Sprain
A medial ankle sprain is also called a pronation-eversion sprain and occurs when you roll your ankle and stretch the inside ligaments of the ankle.
Significance ankle sprains
The ankle is the second-most likely joint to be injured in sport. In the United States of America, the total cost of ankle sprains is approximately USD$2 billion. Severe ankle sprains occur commonly in basketball players. A study of elite Australian basketball players found that the rate of ankle injury was 3.85 per 1000 participations. Recurrence rates amongst basketball players is reported to be greater than 70%.
Anatomy and function of the medial ankle
The medial ankle is stabilised by the large and expansive deltoid ligament, which always has specific ligaments called the tibionavicular, tibiocalcaneal, and deep posterior tibiotalar ligaments. Ankle stability is provided by the medial and lateral collateral ligaments and the syndesmosis (strong connective tissue located between the two shin bones called the fibula and tibia). The medial ligament complex consists of wide flared, strong connections, which combine to form the deltoid ligament, the anterior tibiofibular ligament and the bony mortise (where the distal tibia joins the talus bone to form an ankle joint). The hardly stretchable medial structures also provide passive stability of the foot.
Causes of a medial ankle sprain
Medial ankle sprains are more common in sporting populations as large forces are typically needed for this type of injury to occur. People participating in sports in which there is a rapid change in direction of movement, such as basketball, soccer, football, hockey and tennis, are at a higher risk of medial ankle sprain. People with flatfeet (excessive pronation), pre-existing injury or a history of medial ankle sprain are also more at risk.
Symptoms of medial ankle sprain
Ankle pain and swelling on the inside of the ankle are the most common symptoms of a medial ankle sprain. Bruising is common. Difficulty to walk or bear weight through the ankle will be likely if there is considerable damage to the inside ligaments.
Treatment of medial ankle sprain
Treatment for a medial ankle sprain is determined on an individual basis. The location, extent and severity of the injury are all factors that are considered before creating a successful treatment plan.